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10 July 2018, 04:55 | Randall Craig
HIV Vaccine Could Potentially Provide Immunity
Medical science has cured many diseases and now a new study reveals HIV vaccine that has the potential to protect people around the world as the treatment has shown promising results.
Meant to provide broad protection from the many strains of HIV that are prevalent worldwide, the "mosaic" vaccine contains a patchwork of genetic sequences found among various HIV strains. All of them were aged 18 to 50 with healthy medical records and no HIV.
To address these methodological issues, the scientists evaluated the leading mosaic adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26)-based HIV-1 vaccine candidates in parallel clinical and pre-clinical studies to identify the optimal HIVvaccine regimen to advance into clinical efficacy trials. A vaccine would not only be more manageable, but also more effective. All the participants went through a random, double blind kind of trial which is being referred to as "mosaic" vaccine which is basically pieces of various HIV viruses, combined together to induce immune responses against the HIV strains. According to the study authors, the vaccine produced "robust (high levels of) immune responses" in the participants.
Near about 1.8 million people get affected with HIV virus per year and almost thirty-seven million individuals are living with the virus globally. A safe and effective preventative vaccine is urgently needed to curb the HIV pandemic.
The Ad26/Ad26 plus gp140 vaccine candidate induced the greatest immune responses in humans and also provided the best protection in monkeys, resulting in complete protection against infection of SHIV, a virus similar to HIV that infects monkeys, in two-thirds of the vaccinated animals.
"These results represent an important milestone", Barouch said when speaking with BBC News.
"Based on these data, the mosaic Ad26/Env HIV-1 vaccine has been advanced into a phase 2b clinical efficacy study to determine whether this vaccine will prevent HIV infection in humans in southern Africa". "Obviously, the search for an HIVvaccine is very elusive", said Dr. Carlos del Rio, who was not involved with the study but has done similar research as the co-principal investigator of the Emory-CDC HIV Clinical Trials Unit. The 2 boost vaccinations used various combinations of Adv.Mos.HIV or Modified Vaccina Ankara, with or without 2 different doses of clade C HIV gp 140 envelope protein containing an aluminum adjuvant.
In the near four decades since the start of the Aids crisis, this is only the fifth experimental vaccine that has progressed to a stage where it can be tested on humans.
Dr Brady added that in the meantime there were already tools that were effective for preventing the disease from spreading, such as contraception and treatments for HIV-positive people that prevent them from passing on the virus.
Buchbinder said that she hoped "to validate our non-human primate model to see if it works for humans and if we see the same correlates of protection".
3d rendered HIV Virus in Blood Stream in color background.
The research was funded by Janssen Vaccines & Prevention, the US National Institutes of Health, the Ragon Institute, the Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, the US Department of Defense, and the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative.
More than 80% of people who received this version also showed positive signs for 2 other measures of immune response.
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