January 16, 2019

Nobel Prize in medicine awarded to two researchers for key cancer discovery

01 October 2018, 04:41 | Randall Craig

Cancer Researchers Win 2018 Nobel Prize For Medicine

Former Scripps Research postdoc wins Nobel Prize in medicine

The 2018 Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology has been jointly awarded to United States and Japanese immunologists James P Allison and Tasuku Honjo.

Allison will share the prize with Japan's Tasuku Honjo for work that "takes advantage of the immune system's ability to attack cancer cells by releasing the brakes on immune cells", the Karolinksa Institute in Sweden said in making the decision.

The two scientists have been awarded the prize for their discovery that the body's immune system can be harnessed to attack cancer cells.

American Allison studied a protein that functions as a brake on the immune system.

Allison, 70, "realised the potential of releasing the brake and thereby unleashing our immune cells to attack tumours", the Nobel jury said during Monday's prize announcement in Stockholm.

He then developed this concept into a new approach for treating patients. Called PD-1, this protein, he found, functions as a T-cell brake but via a different mechanism than CTLA-4 uses.

"The seminal discoveries by the two Laureates constitute a landmark in our fight against cancer", the institute said.

"I would like to keep on doing my that this immune treatment could save more cancer patients", he said.

Mr Allison, a professor at the University of Texas, and Mr Honjo, a professor at Kyoto University, in 2014 won the Tang Prize, touted as Asia's version of the Nobels, for their research.

Allison's work, much of it done at the University of California-Berkley, changed that by proving the immune system could identify tumor cells and act against them.

Charles Swanton, chief clinician at the charity Cancer Research UK, said the scientists' work had revolutionised cancer and immunotherapy.

His 1994 experiment was spectacularly successful, with mice with cancer cured by treatment with the antibodies that inhibit the brake and unlock antitumor T-cell activity.

"Until the discoveries made by the 2018 Medicine Laureates, progress into clinical development was modest". It was because of a sexual misconduct scandal that led to the decision was the Nobel assembly.

Awards in physics, chemistry, peace and economics will follow.

The academy hopes to award both the 2018 prize and the 2019 literature prize next year.

Other News

Trending Now

Apparently Google's New Chrome OS Tablet Will be Called the Pixel Slate
A double twist of the device inside the Camera app will let you switch between the front and back cameras. This time around, Google seems to be planning major changes for both the products, by including a notch.

Ryanair cancels around 250 flights amid strikes
Ryanair , which now has 86 bases, aims to fly 200-million passengers per year by 2024, up from a forecast of 139-million in 2018. The carrier said on Thursday it expected up to 100 more to be cancelled after German pilots said they would join the protest.

Netflix Releases 'House of Cards' Season 6 Teaser Trailer
That looks likely in the wake of the second teaser trailer , above, which shows Claire standing in front of her husband's grave. Kevin Spacey was infamously dropped by Netflix after several accusers claim that the actor made sexual advances on them.

Facebook hacked: Is your account safe?
It's also not yet clear who is behind the attack on Facebook, or whether the attacks were targeted, and the reason behind it. The company is already the subject of a preliminary enquiry by the CBI in connection with the Cambridge Analytica scandal.

What Cristiano Ronaldo allegedly said to model after raping her
He has been named player of the year five times and recently completed a €100m (£89m) transfer to Juventus from Real Madrid. She says she only signed the original document because she was "scared" and "didn't want her name" in the public spotlight.

Juventus vs. Bologna - Football Match Report
Luca Pellegrini came off the bench for his Serie A debut, to set up Aleksandar Kolarov for the fourth three minutes from time. Bram Nuytinck pulled one back with a volley to liven up the last 10 minutes in Udine.

Gwyneth Paltrow Marries Brad Falchuk in the Hamptons
Paltrow's new husband celebrated his bride-to-be's birthday on Thursday by dedicating an Instagram post to his sweetheart. The actress shared the first look at her wedding ring in the lovely photo, showing her hand resting on Falchuk's.

Galaxy Note 9 getting Cloud Silver and Midnight Black colors October 5
Samsung launched the Samsung Galaxy Note 9 in three different colors: Midnight Black, Ocean Blue, and Lavender Purple. The Cloud Silver Note 9 has the same glass back as existing Note 9 models, with a shimmery silver paint underneath.

Wuhan Open: Barty beats Pavlyuchenkova, enters semis
Ashleigh Barty reached the semi-finals at the Wuhan Open after beating Anastasia Pavlyuchenkova in straight sets. It was one-way traffic in the second as Barty quickly moved to a 5-0 lead before closing out the match on serve.

R.I. senator says what he expects from Kavanaugh investigation
Keyser doesn't remember the party, but stresses she isn't refuting Ford's account, the lawyer said, according to Sciutto's tweet. The new investigation by the FBI is a limited background check of Kavanaugh, not a full-fledged criminal inquiry.